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牛精英计划启动仪式专刊2011

牛精英计划启动2周年纪念

牛精英一周年交流会专刊

牛精英计划启动仪式专刊2011

牛人牛途升级 七校学子赴美奶业

机会留给有准备的人,趁年轻别错

牛精英计划启动3周年纪念册

牛精英计划启动2周年纪念

牛精英计划获得2013年北京高等学

牛精英计划喜获中国农业大学创新

牛精英一周年交流会专刊

牛精英计划启动仪式专刊2011

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【ECPA】从爱尔兰最大的娟姗牧场了解原料奶计价体系

发布时间:2017-03-30 17:09  文章来源: 牛精英计划  作者: 牛精英计划  点击量:

在爱尔兰,98%的奶牛品种为荷斯坦,全国范围内娟姗奶牛(成母牛)存栏仅约3000头,牛精英们在奥特奇公司销售人员April的带领下参观了爱尔兰最大的一家娟姗牧场。牧场主Ben目前饲养了330头娟姗奶牛,而且他的牧场还处于扩群阶段。牧场中62%的成母牛为二胎牛,这里也与大多数牧场一样,采取春季紧凑产犊模式,尽管牧场不饲养肉用牛(不留养公犊),但为了满足80%以上的奶牛能够在二月和三月产犊,Ben并不会使用性控冻精,而是使用受孕率较高的普通冻精

In Ireland, the main breed of dairy cows is Holstein/Friesian and there are only about 3000 Jersey cows in total. ECPA students visited the largest Jersey dairy farm in Ireland, Ben’s farm, which raises 330 Jersey cows and still at an expanding period. There are 62% of cows at the second lactation and 10 newborn calves per day at this time. In order to ensure that 80% cows can give birth in February and March, Ben doesn’t use much sexual semen due to the low conception rate. 

 

产出基本情况

牛奶固形物产量(千克/年)

516

乳脂率(%

5.8

乳蛋白率(%

4.13

牛奶售出价格(2016)(欧元/升)

0.39

 

 

Basic information

Milk solid yield (kg/year)

516

Milk fat (%)

5.8

Milk protein (%)

4.13

Milk price (2016) ( Eruo/Liter)

0.39

 

爱尔兰的原料奶计价体系由四个部分组成:每千克牛奶中的蛋白含量、每千克牛奶中的脂肪含量、牛奶体积、牛奶质量的奖惩。现在爱尔兰大约有70%的牛奶是通过A+B-C的方式计价(乳蛋白价格*乳蛋白量+乳脂价格*乳脂量-牛奶体积*运输费用,单位:kg)。因此,乳蛋白和乳脂产量是影响原料奶价格的最主要因素。2016年当地牛奶平均价格为0.29欧元/升,从表格中可以看出,娟姗的高乳脂率和高乳蛋白率帮助Ben的牧场获得了一个很不错的奶价。他们的牛奶出售给Glanbia,主要用于生产巴氏奶和奶油奶酪。爱尔兰奶农一般都会加入合作社,GLanbia就是爱尔兰规模较大的六家奶农合作社之一,合作社来负责原料奶的检测、加工以及销售工作,而奶农的工作就是种好草、养好牛!当然,奶农们也会选出区域代表来参加合作社的董事会议,来商讨并决议下一阶段的奶价。

In Ireland, 70% of raw milk is priced by A+B-C method, of which main decisive factors are milk fat and protein. The formula should be Milk price=price of protein*protein content of milk (kg)+price of fat*fat content of milk (kg)-milk volume*transportation cost. Jersey is well known for high milk protein and fat content, which is also the main reason Ben decided to raise Jerseys. Last year, the average local milk price is 0.29 Eruo/L, while Ben’s farm got a better price. They supply raw milk to Glanbia, one of the six largest cooperatives in Ireland, and their main products are pastrurized milk and creamy cheese. Cooperative is a typical organization for farmers in Ireland, which is in charge of raw milk testing, processing and milk products sales. Joining the cooperatives can free the dairy farmers from all the rest issues and ensure them to focus only on planting high quality forage, raising healthy cows and providing BEST raw milk.  In addition, farmers are more powerful in raw milk price decision due to these cooperatives.

包括Ben在内,牧场仅有3个全职工人,这也是因为完善的牧场设备设施和社会化服务体系让养牛变得并没有那么复杂。尽管以放牧为主,Ben十分注重牛舍环境的维护,他在牛舍内安装了光感灯光装置,保证泌乳牛舍内每天有至少16小时光照强度至少在200勒克斯,主要自然光线不足,灯光就会自动开启。每天清理两次卧床上的粪污,通道安装电动刮粪板,2小时完成一轮清理,Ben认为,保持牛舍环境清洁,就能保持牛体清洁,这样奶厅工作效率就可以提高。牧场每天挤两次奶,在2*12的并列式奶厅里,白天有一人负责挤奶,一人兼顾赶牛和挤奶,晚上一人负责全部工作,每次全群挤奶时间约为3.5个小时。

 

It is a highly mechanized operating farm with only 3 full time employees, inculding Ben. Ben pays a lot of efforts to improve cow comfort and hygiene, and follows 16 hrs lightening (200 lux) with light-sensitive lamps, every-two-hour automatic manure scrapers and  twice milking in 2*12 parallel milking parlor within 3.5 hrs per time.

牧场每年收割34次牧草用于制作青贮,第一次收割在5月,之后每6周收割一次,每次收割的牧草干物质含量有所变化,如下表所示。在爱尔兰,一般优质牧草的粗蛋白含量为17%~19%,而牧草青贮的粗蛋白含量仅为11%~14%Ben的牧场牧草青贮质量很好,粗蛋白含量可达15%左右。

 

收割次数

第一次

第三次

干物质含量(%)

23

37

 

Ben’s farm harvests grass 3 or 4 times per year to make silage. The 1st cut in May, and every 6 weeks later the next cut occurred. In Ireland, the crude protein of grass is about 17%~19%, while the CP of grass silage is only 11%~14%. Last year, Ben made really good quality grass silage, which CP is about 15%.

Times of cutting

1st

3rd

DM (%)

23

37

近三年Ben遭遇最大的挑战就是现金周转问题,由于牧场仍处于发展阶段,前期投入成本回报较慢,另外管理和劳动力也是一项长期开销,以挤奶工薪酬为例,每次挤奶Ben需要支付给工人70欧元/人。Ben希望通过扩群以及利用娟姗牛乳品质的优势,获得更多收益。

Ben told ECPA students that the biggest challenge in last 3 years was cash flow, especially with the expanding plans (the investment in return is slow) and high administration and labor costs (70Euro/person/milking) in Ireland. Ben hopes to increase the profitability through expanding herds and getting more high quality milk.